84 Polonium


The incorruptible  shields and forges your inner and outer shell.  It shapes you according to his will and absolute decree under his suffocating blackness.

Polonium is highly dangerous and has no biological role.

By mass, polonium-210 is around 250,000 times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide (the LD50 for 210Po is less than 1 micro-grams for an average adult compared with about 250 milligrams for hydrogen cyanide. The main hazard is its intense radioactivity (as an alpha emitter), which makes it very difficult to handle safely. Even in micro-gram amounts, handling 210Po is extremely dangerous, requiring specialized equipment (a negative pressure alpha glove box equipped with high performance filters), adequate monitoring, and strict handling procedures to avoid any contamination. Alpha particles emitted by polonium will damage organic tissue easily if polonium is ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, although they do not penetrate the epidermis and hence are not hazardous as long as the alpha particles remain outside the body. 
It has been reported that some microbes  methylated polonium by the action of methylcobalamin. This is similar to the way in which mercury, selenium and tellurium are methylated in living things to create organometallic compounds. Studies investigating the metabolism of polonium-210 in rats have shown that only 0.002 to 0.009% of polonium-210 ingested is excreted as volatile polonium-210.Polonium has been found in tobacco smoke from tobacco leaves grown with phosphate fertilizers. Because it is present in such small concentrations, isolation of polonium from natural sources is a very tedious process. 

 

Panel 1

187 Osmium


very_toxic
Blessing

Atomic Number: 76

Atomic Weight: 190.23

Melting Point: 3306 K (3033°C or 5491°F)

Boiling Point: 5285 K (5012°C or 9054°F)

Density: 22.57 grams per cubic centimeter

Phase at Room Temperature: Solid

Element Classification: Metal

Period Number: 6    Group Number: 8    

Group Name: none

From the Greek word for a smell, osme.

Osmium and iridium were discovered at the same time by the British chemist Smithson Tennant in 1803. Osmium and iridium were identified in the black residue remaining after dissolving platinum ore with aqua regia, a mixture of 25% nitric acid (HNO3) and 75% hydrochloric acid (HCl). Today, osmium is primarily recovered during the processing of platinum and nickel ores.

Metallic osmium is hard, brittle and very difficult to make. Powdered osmium is easier to make but emits osmium tetroxide (OsO4) when it is exposed to the air. Unfortunately, osmium tetroxide smells bad and is very poisonous. Because of these problems, osmium is primarily used to make very hard alloys. Osmium alloys can be found in ball point pen tips, fountain pen tips, record player needles, electrical contacts and other devices where frictional wear must be minimized.  

osmium
SATANAS

                        

 

Panel 2

204 Thallium


Appearance
A soft, silvery-white metal that tarnishes easily.
Uses
The use of thallium is limited as it is a toxic element. Thallium sulfate was employed as a rodent killer – it is odourless and tasteless – but household use of this poison has been prohibited in most developed countries.
 Most thallium is used by the electronics industry in photoelectric cells. Thallium oxide is used to produce special glass with a high index of refraction, and also low melting glass that becomes fluid at about 125K..
Biological role
Thallium has no known biological role. It is very toxic and they’re is evidence that the vapour is both teratogenic (disturbs the development of an embryo or foetus) and carcinogenic. It can displace potassium around the body affecting the central nervous system.
Natural abundance
Thallium is found in several ores. One of these is pyrites, which is used to produce sulfuric acid. Some thallium is obtained from pyrites, but it is mainly obtained as a by-product of copper, zinc and lead refining. Thallium is also present in manganese nodules found on the ocean floor.

The lorandite (THALLIUM CRYSTAL) from the mine can register in a chemical and physical way the so called neutron flux coming from the Sun. It is the only known substance that has this power. If the neutron could be explored, science could understand the processes that go on inside the Sun. Some say with awe that it could lead understanding the past but also the future of our galaxy.

How did it ever get they’re, and only they’re? On a mountain (Kozuf) in the southern Balkans. One assumption, again resembling a movie scenario, is that – it fell from the Sun, as a result of eruption a billion years ago.

 origin of the element’s name (from Greek ‘thallos’, meaning ‘a green shoot or twig’), its toxicity and it’s use in the manufacture of reflective glass.

 

THALLIUM

thallium

 

Panel 3

84 Polonium


The incorruptible  shields and forges your inner and outer shell.  It shapes you according to his will and absolute decree under his suffocating blackness.

Polonium is highly dangerous and has no biological role.

By mass, polonium-210 is around 250,000 times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide (the LD50 for 210Po is less than 1 micro-grams for an average adult compared with about 250 milligrams for hydrogen cyanide. The main hazard is its intense radioactivity (as an alpha emitter), which makes it very difficult to handle safely. Even in micro-gram amounts, handling 210Po is extremely dangerous, requiring specialized equipment (a negative pressure alpha glove box equipped with high performance filters), adequate monitoring, and strict handling procedures to avoid any contamination. Alpha particles emitted by polonium will damage organic tissue easily if polonium is ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, although they do not penetrate the epidermis and hence are not hazardous as long as the alpha particles remain outside the body. 
It has been reported that some microbes  methylated polonium by the action of methylcobalamin. This is similar to the way in which mercury, selenium and tellurium are methylated in living things to create organometallic compounds. Studies investigating the metabolism of polonium-210 in rats have shown that only 0.002 to 0.009% of polonium-210 ingested is excreted as volatile polonium-210.Polonium has been found in tobacco smoke from tobacco leaves grown with phosphate fertilizers. Because it is present in such small concentrations, isolation of polonium from natural sources is a very tedious process. 

 

Panel 4

19 Fluorine


fluori01fluorine-orbitals

Fluorine is a pale yellow-green gas immediately dangerous to life if inhaled. Fluorine the 13th most abundant element found in the earth’s crust. Fluorine F is never found as a free element in nature. Fluoride ions readily penetrate skin removing the calcium from bones and blood resulting in death for Homo Hubris almost immediately

Panel 5

Beryllium 9


Properties of Beryllium

Beryllium metal is very light and very stiff-on a weight-to-weight basis, beryllium is six times stiffer than steel, and it maintains its shape at high and low temperatures. Beryllium metal is used in the aerospace and defense industries to make lightweight precision instruments.

The mirrors of the Spitzer Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which is scheduled for launch in 2018, are made of beryllium. The primary mirror of the JWST contains 18 hexagonal segments (each segment is 4.3 feet in diameter) that must maintain their exact shape even at temperatures of -400 degrees Fahrenheit and must be light enough to be carried into orbit; the telescope will operate approximately 1 million miles above Earth.

Beryllium is almost transparent to x-rays, and beryllium foil is used as window material in x-ray and other radiation machines. In nuclear reactors, beryllium metal and beryllium oxide are used to control fission reactions. Beryllium has also been used in the trigger mechanisms for nuclear weapons.

 

 

Beryllium-1.jpg

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Where Does Beryllium Come From?

Two minerals, bertrandite and beryl, are mined for beryllium, and both are found in association with igneous rocks. All the beryllium currently being mined in the United States comes from the mineral bertrandite.

Bertrandite Sources

A complex series of events must take place to concentrate beryllium into bertrandite. First, a magma that is rich in fluorine, beryllium, and silica must erupt in an area where there are carbonate rocks (limestone or dolomite). If heat from the magma warms the groundwater in the area and causes the water to move through the surrounding rocks, the water picks up elements, including beryllium, from those rocks; the water may then react with suitable igneous or sedimentary rocks to crystallize minerals, including bertrandite.

Beryl Sources

The mineral beryl is the main source of beryllium mined outside the United States. Beryl is most often found in veins or pegmatites, which are rocks that contain the last minerals to crystallize from a large igneous intrusion. Pegmatites are distinguished by large interlocking crystals that often include unusual elements and minerals.

Pure beryl crystals are colorless, but the inclusion of other elements in beryl creates colorful, valuable gemstones. The green color in emerald is due to traces of chromium and sometimes vanadium in the beryl crystal lattice. The pale blue to blue-green color of aquamarine is caused by iron atoms with an oxidation state of +2 (Fe2+); other elements in beryl crystals produce colors that range from gold to red. America’s largest faceted emerald, a 64-carat gemstone, was cut from a 310-carat dark green crystal found at the Adams Emerald Mine in North Carolina in 2009.

Beryllium Supply and Demand

The United States is the world’s leading source of beryllium. A single mine at Spor Mountain, Utah, produced more than 85 percent of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010. China produced most of the remainder, and less than 2 percent came from Mozambique and other countries. National stockpiles also provide significant amounts of beryllium for processing. Three countries-China, Kazakhstan, and the United States-process beryllium ore. In 2005, the U.S. Department of Defense began a partnership with a private-sector company to build a new processing facility in Ohio to produce high-purity beryllium metal. The processing facility was completed in 2011, and up to two-thirds of its output was to be allocated for defense and other Government-related end uses.

Beryllium Recycling

Beryllium that is recycled from scrap left over from the manufacture of beryllium-bearing products may provide approximately 10 percent of U.S. apparent consumption. Apparent consumption is a measure of the amount of a material that is actually used, calculated as production + imports – exports ± changes in Government or industry stocks.

United States Beryllium Resources

The United States is likely to be able to meet most of its beryllium requirements from domestic sources. There are substantial proven reserves of bertrandite at Spor Mountain, Utah, and there are beryllium resources in other areas of Utah and Alaska. Approximately 65 percent of the estimated global resources of nonpegmatitic beryllium is located in the United States. The U.S. Department of Defense aims to hold approximately 45 metric tons of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder in the National Defense Stockpile.

Beryllium Information
[1] Beryllim: Brian W. Jaskula, United States Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2012.

[2] Beryllium: Brian W. Jaskula, United States Geological Survey, Minerals Yearbook, April 2012.

[3] Beryllium Recycling in the United States: Larry D. Cunningham, United States Geological Survey Circular 1196-P, 2004.

[4] An Occurrence Model for the National Assessment of Volcanogenic Beryllium Deposits: Nora K. Foley, Robert R. Seal, II, Nadine M. Piatak, and Brianna Hetland, United States Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2010-1195, 2010.

Ensuring Future Beryllium Supplies

To help predict where future beryllium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where beryllium resources are concentrated in Earth’s crust and use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered beryllium resources may exist. Techniques to assess mineral resources have been developed by the USGS to support the stewardship of Federal lands and to better evaluate mineral resource availability in a global context. The USGS also compiles statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of beryllium. T